Free Grammar Lessons
On this page you will find some of our old grammar lessons that we have posted on our Facebook page over the past few years. Please join our page for regular grammar updates.
|The Past Simple
We use the past simple to talk about finished actions.
-I lived in Mexico (+) For the negative use ‘did not + infinitive’: -I did not eat sushi last night. (-)
The past is the same for I/he/she/it etc.
Regular verbs in the past end in ‘ed’ eg played jumped etc. For questions use did + infinitive: -Did you see Kevin yesterday? (?)
When you are speaking you need to use contractions. It sounds more natural and fluent. Was not = wasn’t, were not = weren’t Did not = didn’t
There are many ways we can use ‘ would :’ The first way is ‘Iwould like…’ this is the polite way of saying ‘I want. ‘ It is not a good idea to say ‘I want ‘ directly to people, they might think it’s rude!
These kind of questions are used to sound more polite when we are speaking. ‘Could you tell me…?’ ‘Do you know…?’
Where is the station? = Could you tell me where the station is? Does this bus go to Trafalgar Square? = Do you know if this bus goes to Trafalgar Square? Is there a bank near here? = Do you know if there is a bank near here? What time is it? = Could you tell me what the time is?
|Present Continuous (Future)
We use present continuous to talk about future arrangements ‘We’re getting married next week.’ ‘We aren’t leaving on Friday.’ ‘Are you seeing John tonight?’ In this situation the decision has already been made.
It has been arranged, you know the date, time, location you are getting married. It is definitely happening. You are allowed to use ‘going to’ for future arrangements.
However, you cannot use present continuous for future plans or intentions. DO NOT use ‘Will/won’t’ when you have already decided to do something. This is a common mistake.
|Comparatives and Superlatives (Part one)
This is a grammar point that has some good and clear rules to follow. We use these kind of adjectives to compare two things or to say one thing is the top or the bottom in one area.
I am more comfortable in this chair than the other one. This is the least comfortable car I have ever been in. She is the most patient girl I know. She is a lot less patient than her mother.
|Comparatives and Superlatives (Part two)
In this lesson we will learn what to do with adverbs. We will also learn about the irregular adjectives that do not follow the rules we previously learned.
There are a number of adjectives that do not follow the ‘er, est’ pattern:
In the past lesson, some students mentioned other adjectives with two syllables that do not follow the pattern. Handsome can be used either way: handsomer or more handsome. I prefer more handsome. My advice is to stick to the main rules and you will not get confused!
Now, we move onto adverbs:
Some people like to do something similar with 2 syllable adverbs that they do with 2 syllable adjectives.
|The Present Simple
Use the present simple to talk about things that are generally true or are a habit.
|MUST/HAVE TO (obligation)
Obligation/necessity: have to/must (+infinitive) ‘must’ and ‘have to’ have a very similar meaning. ‘Have to’ is more common for general obligations like rules or laws e.g ‘ You have to bring your passport when you travel to another country.’
The negative of ‘have to’ , ‘don’t have to’ means you have no obligation/necessity. e.g ‘You don’t have to pay for a ticket. It is free.’ The negative of ‘must’, ‘mustn’t’ means you are prohibited or forbidden. ‘You mustn’t go there, it’s dangerous.’ REMEMBER: ‘mustn’t’ and ‘don’t have to are completely different. This is a very common mistake.
|Must, may, might, can’t
We use these modal verbs to decide whether something is true or not. It is our deduction.
When you are sure something is true: MUST ‘He must be asleep. I can hear him snoring.’ ‘He must be married. He has a wedding ring.’When you think something is true: MAY/MIGHT ‘He might not like that game, he prefers sports games.’ ‘He may have left his phone at home.
He is not answering it.’ There is no real difference between ‘may’ and ‘might’ here. Might is more popular though.
|Going to + Present Simple
We use ‘going to’ to talk about future plans or intentions. ‘I am going to go on holiday next year.’ ‘I am not going to buy a cat next month.’ ‘Are you going to watch this film at the cinema?’
This is a plan, but it is not necessarily definite. Maybe you haven’t bought the tickets or decided where to go but it is your idea.
|Will + Present Simple
Last week we learned how to use ‘going to;’ this week we are going to learn how to use ‘will.’ We use will for a lot of different reasons. However, we DO NOT use will for future plans.
This is a common mistake with English learners. We use ‘will’ for the following reasons:
1) Instant decision When you decide something at the moment of speaking. e.g You go into a cafe and you look at the menu: “I’ll have a coffee please.”
2) Offer When you offer to do something for somebody “I’ll help you with your suitcases.”
3) Promise ” I will never lie to you.”
4) Future Fact Something that you know is almost certainly going to be true. “I will see John at work tomorrow.”